 performances, instructions, examples

SuperCalculator is implemented in Javascript, so you can use it only if your browser allows Javascript.

SuperCalculator produces graphs and tables in pop-up windows, so you can fully exploit its resources only if your browser allows pop-ups.

SuperCalculator is intended for educational, non-professional use only; we do not take responsibility for any inaccuracies or errors.

SuperCalculator, unlike an ordinary calculator,

• performs calculations on integers, sexagesimal, rational, real and complex numbers with the desired precision;
• performs calculations on vectors and matrices of real or complex numbers;
• performs calculations on Boolean expressions;
• performs some statistical calculations;
• performs some financial mathematics calculations;
• it allows you to declare functions of one or more variables (real or complex) assigning their expression to suitable identifiers;
• it allows you to obtain tables and graphs of real functions of real variable;
• it allows you to describe and represent simple plane geometric figures;

Calculations on integer and rational numbers, represented by fractions or by repeating decimals, are always exact.

Calculations on integer numbers exploit a library of L. Baird.

Rational numbers can be input as fractions or repeating decimals. In this case the repeated digits must be written between square brackets ([...]). Example: 1.2.

The decimal separator in real and rational numbers is the period; commas are not allowed: commas act only as separators between the items of a list.

Real numbers can be input in exponential notation. Example: 1.234e-5. The letter e must be written lowercase, since the letter 'E', written in capital letters, represents the basis of the natural logarithms.

When calculations generate real numbers, results will be approximated to the number of digit written in the decimals field (by default 6).

If this number is too high, the computing time may become intolerable. In the field time you can set the maximum waiting time (in seconds, by default 1).

Numbers in sexagesimal format, used for angular measurements, are expressed by three groups of digits separated by the symbols °, ', " for degrees, primes and seconds. Possible expressions of degrees, primes and seconds in input can be rational numbers; in output these expressions are normalized so that the degrees are expressed by natural numbers, the primes by natural numbers <60 and the seconds by rational numbers < 60.

Example: 12°15'18"+34°56'55.34571"; Sin[30°]; a=15.45°; b=12.18°78'; a+b

The imaginary unit is written as I. The letter I must be written in capital letters.

Examples:

• 2I; 1+3I; 5-12I;
• 1/2I; 1/2+3/4I; 1.2I; 1.2-3.4I;

Boolean values are represented with the characters T and F, mandatory uppercase. Using the appropriate operators described below you can perform Boolean calculations.

Examples:

• (T&&F)==F
• T->F;

It is possible to make some calculations on matrices and on vectors. Vectors can be written as lists and the matrices as lists of lists.

Example: Det[{{1,2,3},{0,1/2,-3},{a,b,0}}].

The constants selector allows you to enter directly into the input field the values of the most common mathematical and physical constants.

Other constants can be stored in memory for further usage.

The operators selector allows you to enter directly into the input field the names of the most common mathematical functions and operators.

To obtain documentation on available operators, use the question mark ? followed by the name of the operator. The uppercase or lowercase format of the characters is irrelevant.

Example: ?Sin, ?sin.

Input and output

In the input field you can write expressions that must be immediately evaluated. These expressions must be typewritten using the standard operation signs (see below) and, eventually, parentheses. After, click the calculate button.

You can also write two or more statements separated by a semicolon (;).

Examples: 100!; 100!!; 100!/100!!
f[x]:=x^2-1; Graph[x,f[x],-2,2]
c=Circ[{0,0},1]; Draw[c].

In the input field you can too declare a function or assign a constant value. In these cases calculate does'nt generate an explicit result but only stores the function or the constant.

However, every activation of the execute button writes, in the output field, the expression in the input field and, below, the result of the evaluation. These two lines are numbered so you can get them using the commands In and Out.

To set a new calculation, you can click on the button new input.

The results obtained in output can be saved on the local disk by selecting the text, activating the copy function (ctrl c), opening an editor (eg. Notepad), pasting (ctrl v) and saving the file generated in the appropriate location.

Since images and tables are produced on stand-alone pages, the browser in use must be allowed to open pop-ups. The pages generated in the pop-ups can be saved with the standard procedure save page as.

In the pages with graphs, using Chrome or Firefox, the graph can be saved as an image in *.png format by clicking on it and setting the name and the location of the image.

Immediate expressions, declarations of function, assignments of constant can contain the following operation signs:

operation signs
sign operation
- subtraction
* multiplication(or blank space)
/ real division
^ power
! factorial
!! double factorial

The following signs of operation act only on natural operands producing natural results. Logical operators perform bitwise calculations.

integer operations signs
sign operation
: integer division
% remainder of integer division
&& and
|| or
## xor
!| nor
!& nand
#| xnor
-> material implication

The following signs of operation act on logical (boolean) operands.

logical operations signs
sign operation
- not (negation)
&& and
|| or
## xor
!| nor
!& nand
#| xnor
-> material implication

Some binary arithmetic operations may be written in prefixed form, given by the name of an operator followed by a pair of square brackets containing the two operands.

prefixed arithmetic operations
operator operation example
Plus[x,y] sum Plus[4,3]
Minus[x,y] subtraction Minus[4,3]
Times[x,y] product Times[4,3]
Div[x,y] division Div[4,3]
Pow[x,y] power Pow[4,3]
Quot[x,y] integer quotient Quoz[24,5]
Rem[x,y] remainder Rem[24,5]

Also some logical or bitwise binary operations may be written in prefixed form, given by the name of an operator followed by a pair of square brackets containing the two operands.

prefixed logical operations
operator operation example
Or[x,y] inclusive disjunction Or[V,F]; Or[2,3]
And[x,y] conjunction And[V,f]; And[4,3]
Xor[x,y] exclusive disjunction Xor[V,F]; Xor[4,3]
Nor[x,y] not Or Nor[V,F]; Nor[4,3]
Nand[x,y] not And Nand[V,F]; Nand[4,3]
Xnor[x,y] exclusive Nor Xnor[V,F]; Xnor[4,3]
Impl[x,y] material implication Impl[V,F]; Impl[4,3]

The priority in the evaluation of an expression is given by parentheses, possibly nested.

Expressions may contain the following constants.

(Physical constants have precision limited to their experimental values.)

predefined constants
constant name
P greek pi (π)
E Euler's number
PHI golden number
I imaginary unit
T boolean true value
F boolean false value
GAMMA Euler-Mascheroni constant
G gravitational constant
PLANCK Planck's constant
C speed of light in vacuum
R ideal gas constant
BOLTZ Boltzmann constant
ELM electron rest mass
ELC charge of an electron
PRM proton rest mass
PRC charge of a proton
EPS0 vacuum permittivity
MU0 vacuum permeability
RYDB Rydberg constant,
COMPTON Compton wavelength
STEFAN Stefan-Boltzmann constant
SG Standard acceleration of gravity on the Earth's surface
ATM Standard Atmosphere

In the input field you can call the following functions that require only one real or complex argument (exceptionally two in powers, radices and logarithms). If the argument is represented by x, it must be real; if the argument is represented by z it can be real or complex. You can obtain tables or graphs only for real function of real variable.

real functions
function name example
Int[x] integer part Int[P]
Frac[x] fractional part Frac[P]
Abs[z] absolute value Abs[1+I]
Rec[z] reciprocal (multiplicative inverse) Rec[1+I]
Arg[z] argument of a complex Arg[3+4I]
Real[z] real part of a complex Real[3+4I]
Im[z] imaginary part of a complex Im[3+4I]
Sqr[z] square Sqr[P]; Sqr[1+I]
Cube[z] cube Cube[P]; Cube[1+I]
Sqrt[z] square root Sqrt[P]; Sqrt[1+I]
Cubert[z] cube root Cubert[P]; Cubert[1+I]
Root[n,z] n-th root of z (n natural ≥ 2) Root[4,2]
Roots[n,z] n-th roots of z (n natural ≥ 2) Roots[4,2]
Fact[z] factorial Fact; Fact[P]; Fact[1+I]
Sin[z] circular sine Sin[P/2]; Sin[ArcSin]
Cos[z] circular cosine Cos[P/4]; Cos[ArcCos]
Tan[z] circular tangent Tan[P/4]; Tan[1+I]
Sec[z] circular secant Sec[P/3]; Sec[1+I]
Cosec[z] circular cosecant Cosec[P/2]; Sec[1+I]
Cotan[z] circular cotangent Cotan[P/4]; Cotan[1+I]
ArcSin[z] circular arcsine ArcSin[1/2]; ArcSin[1+I]
ArcCos[z] circular arccosine ArcCos[1/2]; ArcCos[1+I]
ArcTan[z] circular arctangent ArcTan[Sqrt]; ArcTan[1+I]
Exp[z] natural exponential Exp[-2]; Exp[I]
Ln[z] natural logarithm Ln[Sqr[E]]; Ln[1+I]
Log[β,z] base β logarithm Log[2,16]; Log[i,Cube[I]]
Sinh[z] hyperbolic sine Sinh; Sinh[1+I]
Cosh[z] hyperbolic cosine Cosh[Ln]; Cosh[1+I]
Tanh[z] hyperbolic tangent Tanh[Ln]; Tanh[1+I]
Sech[z] hyperbolic secant Sech; Sech[1+I]
Cosech[z] hyperbolic cosecant Cosech; Cosech[1+I]
Cotanh[z] hyperbolic cotangent Cotanh[P/4]; Cotanh[1+I]
ArcSinh[z] hyperbolic arcsine ArcSinh; ArcSinh[1+I]
ArcCosh[z] hyperbolic arccosine ArcCosh; ArcCosh[1+I]
ArcTanh[z] hyperbolic arctangent ArcTanh; ArcTanh[1+I]
Gamma[z] Euler's gamma Gamma==10!; Gamma[1+I]
Zeta[x] Riemann's Zeta Zeta[-2]
EllipticK[x] complete elliptic integral of the first kind EllipticK[1/2]
EllipticE[x] complete elliptic integral of the second kind EllipticE[1/2]
Random[x] random positive number < x, integer or real depending on the type of x Random; Random[10.]
Gauss[x] normalized gaussian (mean 0) Gauss
Erf[x] Error function Erf

These functions can be directly integrated, graphed or tabulated.

Example:

Graph[x,Sin[x],0,2P]
Graph[x,Erf[x],-2,2,0.1]
Table[x,Sqrt[x],0,4]
Coords[x,Cosh[x],-1,1,0.1]

You can also call the following functions with real arguments.

Other functions with real argument
function result example
BinomialD[x,n,k] binomial distribution with probability x x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) BinomialD[0.3,10,4]
LegendreP[n,x] Legendre polynomial of the first kind LegendreP[2,x]
LegendreQ[n,x] Legendre polynomial of the second kind LegendreQ[2,x]
ChebyshevT[n,x] Chebyshev's polynomial of the first kind ChebyshevT[2,x]
ChebyshevU[n,x] Chebyshev's polynomial of the second kind ChebyshevU[2,x]
GaussS[x,σ] gaussian with standard deviation σ and mean 0 GaussS[1,1/2]
GaussSM[x,σ,μ] gaussian with standard deviation σ e mean μ GaussSM[2,1,0.5]

The graphs of these functions cannot be directly produced. To get their graphs, you must declare a function giving it your identifier and writing one or more of the upper names in the second term of the declaration.

Example:

db[n]:=BinomialD[0.5,10,n]; Table[n,db[n],0,10,1]

There are also the following operators on real numbers.

real numbers operators
operator result example
ApproxFr[x] if x is rational shows x as a fraction; otherwise produces the best rational approximation of x with the current precision. ApproxFr[Sin[P/6]];ApproxFr[Sqrt]
ToContinued[x] gives the sequence of the terms of the expansion of the absolute value of f in continued fraction. ToContinued[79/122]
DegDms[x] from decimal degrees to sexagesimal degrees DegDms[1.5]
DegSec[x] from decimal degrees to seconds DegSec
SecDeg[x] from seconds to decimal degrees SecDeg
SecDms[x] from seconds to sexagesimal degrees SecDms

The following operators act on Sexagesimal arguments.

operators act on sexagesimal arguments
operator result example
DmsDeg[x] from sexagesimal degrees to decimal degrees DmsDeg[45°12'34"]
DmsSec[x] from sexagesimal degrees to seconds DmsSec[45°12'34"]

For statistical calculations you can use the following operators that act on a list of real numbers.

real numbers list operators
operator result example
Mean[vector] arithmetic mean Mean[P,E,Sqrt]
SSigma[vector] sample standard deviation SSigma[P,E,Sqrt]
PSigma[vector] population standard deviation PSigma[P,E,Sqrt]

Furthermore you can use the following operators that act on lists of pairs of real numbers.

operators on lists of pairs of real numbers
operator result example
Pcc[list of pairs] Pearson's linear correlation coefficient Pcc[{1,2},{2,3},{3,4},{4,5}]
Ols[list of pairs] (Ordinary least squares): linear regression line Ols[{1,2},{2,3},{3,4},{4,5}]
Pls[n,list of pairs] (Polynomial least squares): n-th degree polynomial regression Pls[3,{{-2,0},{-1,-1},{0,0},{1,1},{2,0}}]

The list can be represented by a previously declared constant.

Example:

data = 12,14,13,15,11,12,12,14
Mean[data]

The following operator act on a rational numbers.

rational numbers operators
operator result example
Num[f] the numerator of the fraction f Num[Bernoulli]
Den[f] the denominator of the fraction f Den[Bernoulli]
N from fraction to decimal or from repeating to decimal N[2/3]; N[1.2]
Egyptian[f,maxl,maxn] a fraction as sum of distinct unit fractions, said egyptian fractions; maxl is the maximum number of addends; maxn is the maximum number of solutions Egyptian[3/7,5,5]
ToContinued[f] gives the sequence of the terms of the expansion of the absolute value of f in continued fraction. ToContinued[79/122]
FromContinued[a0,a1,a2,...an] gives the fraction corresponding to the sequence of the given coefficients. FromContinued[0,1,1,1,5,7]

The following operators act on one or more natural numbers.

natural number operators
operator result example
Gcd[list] greatest common divisor Gcd[123456,234567,345678]
Lcm[list] least common multiple Lcm[123,234,345]
PrimeQ[n] true or false if the argument is prime or not PrimeQ
PrimeF[n] prime factor decomposition PrimeF
PrimeN[n] n-th prime number PrimeN
Binomial[n,k] binomial coefficient Binomial[100,37]; Binomial[-1/2,3]
Partition[n] evaluations of the partition function of a natural number Partition
Base[n,β] integer number n from base 10 to the base β Base[1234,16]
Fibonacci[n] Fibonacci's sequence n-th number Fibonacci
Perrin[n] Perrin's sequence n-th number Perrin
Bernoulli[n] Bernoulli's n-th number Bernoulli
Euler[n] Euler's n-th number Euler
Bell[n] Bell's sequence n-th number Bell; Table[n,Bell[n],0,50,1]
DFact[n] double factorial DFact
Collatz[n] Collatz's sequence Collatz
Triples[min,max] Pythagorean triples formed by numbers between min and max Triples[3,300]
StirlingS[n,k] Stirling's number of the second kind StirlingS[100,37]

Binomial can compute also pairs of real or complex numbers.

The following operators act on one o more previously declared functions. The function identifier or a list of such identifiers must be the first argument. The second and the third argument give the analyzed range.

functions operators
operator result example
Derive[x,f[x],x0] approximate calculation of the derivative of a real function at a point in its domain Derive[x,Sin[x],0]
Integrate[x,f[x],x1,x2] approximate calculation of the integral of a function in an interval of his domain Integrate[x,Sin[x],0,P/2]
Table[x,f[x],x1,x2] gives the table of a function in the given range Table[x,Sin[x],0,2P]
Table[x,f[x],x1,x2,dx] gives the table of a function in the given range with given increment Table[x,Sin[x],0,2P,P/6]
Coords[x,f[x],x1,x2] gives the list of the pairs {x,f[x]} in the given range Coords[x,Sin[x],0,2P]
Coords[x,f[x],x1,x2,dx] gives the list of the pairs {x,f[x]} in the given range with given increment Coords[x,Sin[x],0,2P,P/6]
Values[x,f[x],x1,x2] gives the set of the values y of a function in the given range Values[x,Sin[x],0,2P]
Values[x,f[x],x1,x2,dx] gives the set of the values y of a function in the given range with given increment Values[x,Sin[x],0,2P,P/6]
Zeros[x,f[x],x1,x2] gives the approximations of the zeroes in the given range Zeros[x,Sin[2x],-5,5]
Analysis[x,f[x],x1,x2] finds the approximations to the most important points of a graph of a function in the given range Analysis[x,x^2,-1,1]

The following operators allow you to get graphs of real functions of one real variable or some geometric plane figures.

graphic operators
operator result example
RangeX[x1,x2] sets the lower and the upper bounds of the abscissas of the points of a graph; by default [-20,20] RangeX[-20,20]
RangeY[y1,y2] sets the lower and the upper bounds of the ordinates of the points of a graph; by default [-20,20] RangeY[-20,20]
Graph[x,f[x],x1,x2] draws the graph of a function in a given interval using a fixed number of values of the argument equally spaced Graph[x,Sqr[Sin[x]],0,2P]
Graph[x,f[x],x1,x2,dx] draws the graph of a function in a given interval with fixed increment of the argument Graph[x,x^2-1,-2,2,0.1]
Graph[x,{f[x],g[x]},x1,x2] draws of the graph of two or more functions in a given interval using a fixed number of values of the argument equally spaced Graph[x,{Sin[x],Cos[x]},0,2P]
Graph[x,{f[x],g[x]},x1,x2,dx] draws of the graph of two or more functions in a given interval with fixed increment of the argument Graph[x,{Sin[x],Cos[x]},0,2P,0.1]
Histogram[title,list of pairs] draws a histogram with the given title and pairs t = {{"Rome",20},{"Milan",15},{"Naples",22}};Histogram["temperatures",t]
Circ defines a circle given its center and its radius c=Circ[{0,0},1];Draw[c]
Ellipse defines an ellipse given its eccentricity and its semi-major axis el=Ellipse[{0,0},3,1];Draw[el]
PolyV defines a regular polygon given its centre, its circumscribed radius and its number of sides hepta=PolyV[{0,0},1,7];Draw[hepta]
Draw draws one or more figures generated by previous operators c=Circ[{0,0},1]; Draw[c]; para=Coords[x,Sqr[x],-1,1]; Draw[{c,para}]
Translate translates the figures generated by previous operators q=PolyV[{0,0},1,4]; tq=Translate[q,{-1,2}]; Draw[q,tq]
Rotate rotates the figures generated by previous operators q=PolyV[{0,0},1,4]; rq=Rotate[q,30°]; Draw[q,rq]

The following operators act on one or more numerical vectors.

vectors operators
operator result example
Norm[v] the length of the vector Norm[{1,1}]
PolarAngle[v] gets the polar angle of a real two-dimensional vector PolarAngle[{1/2,Sqrt/2}]
UnitVector[v] the unit vector with the same polar angle UnitVector[{1,1}]

The following operators act on square matrices.

square matrices operators
operator result example
Rank[m] rank of the matrix Rank[{1,2},{2,1}]
Det[m] square matrix determinant Det[{1,2},{2,1}]
Transpose[m] evaluation of the transposed matrix Transpose[{1,2},{2,1}]
Inverse[m] evaluation of the inverse matrix Inverse[{1,2},{2,1}]
Conjugate[m] evaluation of the conjugate matrix Conjugate[{1,I},{2I,1}]
LinearSolve[m,v] calculate the solution of a system of linear equations LinearSolve[{{1,2},{0,1}},{3,4}]
Characteristic[m,v] characteristic polynomial of the square matrix m with variable v Characteristic[{{1,2},{2,I}},x]
EigenValues[m] eigenvalues of a square matrix EigenValues[{{1,2},{2,I}}]
EigenVectors[m] eigenvectors of a square matrix EigenVectors[{{1,2},{2,I}}]
EigenSystem[m] eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a square matrix EigenSystem[{{1,2},{2,I}}]

Using the standard operation signs one can make additions, multiplications, subtractions, divisions, powers to integer exponent of matrices.

Example.

• m1={1,2,3}{2,3,4}{3,4,1}
• m1^2
• m2={5,2,1}{1,-1,3}{-1/2,0,1}
• m1*m2
• m1+m1
• m1^2

The following operators act on the content of lists.

list operators
operator result example
Append[l,o] given a list identifier l and an item o, puts o at the end of l Append[l,o]
Append[l,l1] given two list identifiers l and l1, appends to l all the items of l1 Append[l,l1]
Insert[l,o,ix] given a list identifier l, the item o and an index ix, inserts o in the position ix of l Insert[l,o,ix]
Insert[l,l1,ix] given two list identifiers l and l1 and an index ix, inserts all the items of l2 in l1 beginning from the position ix Insert[l,l1,ix]
Remove[l,ix] given a list identifier l and an index ix, removes from l the item at the position ix Remove[l,ix]
Remove[l,ix1,ix2] given a list identifier l and two indexes ix1 e ix1, removes from l all the items from the position ix1 to the position ix2 Remove[l,ix1,ix2]
Set[l,o,ix] given a list l, an item o and an index ix, substitutes with o the item at the position ix Set[l,o,ix]
ASort[l] given a list l containing numeric values or strings, sorts l in ascending order ie from the smallest to the largest ASort[1,-4,PI,R,11/3,2e-1,2^5]
DSort[l] given a list l containing numeric values or strings, sorts l in descending order ie from largest to smallest DSort[1,-4,PI,R,11/3,2e-1,2^5]
Frequencies[l] Given a list l containing numeric values, groups the values in ascending order counting how many times they appear in the list. r[x]:=Int[Random]; Frequencies[Values[r,1,100,1]]

The following operators generate outputs of financial mathematics.

financial mathematics
operator result example
Percent given a loan and the interest rate, evaluates the interest Percent[100000,4.85]
Payment given the loan amount, the annual interest rate, the term and the number of annual payments, evaluates the amount of the periodic payment Payment[100000,4,10,12]
Interest given the loan amount, the constant periodic payment, the term and the number of annual payments, evaluates the effective annual interest rate Interest[100000,1250,10,12]
Amortization given the loan amount, the annual interest rate, the term and the number of annual constant payments, prints the amortization table Amortization[100000,4,10,12]

The following operators rewrite the input strings and the output values for further calculations.

input & output
operator result example
In rewrites the n-th input string In
Out rewrites the n-th output value Out
Clear cancels a previous assignment a=1; Clear["a"]

The following operators give calendarial informations.

calendar
operator result example
Today today's date Today
Now the instant time Now
Wd the day of the week from year, month, day of the month Wd[1900,1,1]
Jd[y,m,d] Julian day of a date expressed in the form y,m,d Jd[2018,3,24]
Days[{a1,m1,g1},{a2,m2,g2}] number of days between two dates expressed in the form y,m,d Days[{2018,1,1},{2019,1,1}]
Easter calculates the Easter date of the given year Easter

Geometry

geometry
operator result example
PolyP[r,n] calculates the perimeter of a regular polygon with n sides and circumscribed radius r. PolyP[1,7]
PolyA[r,n] calculates the area of a regular polygon with n sides and circumscribed radius r. PolyA[1,7]
EllipseABP[a,b] calculates the perimeter of an ellipse given the semi-axes a and b. EllipseABP[4,3]
EllipseABA[a,b] calculates the area of an ellipse given the semi-axes a and b. EllipseABA[4,3]
EllipseAEP[a,e] calculates the perimeter of an ellipse given the semi-major axis a and eccentricity e. EllipseAEP[4,3]
EllipseAEA[a,e] calculates the area of an ellipse given the semi-major axis a and eccentricity e. EllipseAEA[4,3]
Triangle[a,b,c,α,β,γ] solves a triangle given three known elements (not the three angles): first the three sides, then the three angles; unknown elements must be indicated with 0;
the angles must be expressed either in radians or sexagesimal degrees.
Triangle[10,0,0,60°,0,P/3]
Distance[{la1,lo1},{la2,lo2}] calculates the distance in km between two points of the Earth's surface identified by their latitude and longitude (sexagesimal or decimal degrees). Distance[{0°,0°},{0°,1°}]; Distance[{0,0},{0,1}]

Mathematical expressions

Mathematical expressions must be inputted by typewritten strings, using the keys of a standard keyboard. They can contain numbers given immediately or represented by identifiers of constants, operations signs, built-in functions or user declared functions, parentheses eventually nested and well balanced.

Examples.

• PI*8^2
• (2+3)/4
• (Sin[PI/3])^2
• f1+f2[Ln]
• ((10!/9!)+2)/5

Grouping marks

The grouping marks are:

• parentheses: in the mathematical expressions, eventually nested, rule the priority of calculation.
• square brackets: are the mark for functions and operators and may contain their arguments;
square brackets enclose the period of a rational number: example 1.2;
square brackets enclose the index of an item of a list: example EigenVectors[m].
• braces : enclose the items of a list; the items must be separated by commas.

Storage of a constant value

To store a constant value one must write an arbitrary identifier followed by = and by the value.

Example.

• a = 12
• b = 1/2
• halfln2 = Ln/2
• data = {2,2,3,3,4,4,4,4,5,5,5,4,4,3,2,1}
• matrix1 = {{2,2,3,3},{4,4,4,4},{5,5,5,4},{4,3,2,1}} (but matrix1 = {2,2,3,3}{4,4,4,4}{5,5,5,4}{4,3,2,1} works fine)

Identifiers are case sensitive.

Identifiers can be reassigned.

Declaration of a function

To declare a real function of one or more variables, one must write an arbitrary identifier followed by brackets enclosing one or more variables. The brackets must be followed by := (Pascal like) and by the expression of the function in terms of these variables.

Examples.

• f[x] := x^2-1
• f1[x] := Sin[2x]+2Cos[x]
• f2[x,y] := Sqrt[x^2+y^2]

Parametric functions can be declared as functions of a single variable expressed by a list of two or more expressions. The list must contain only names of functions

Example.

• f[x] := {Cos[x],Sin[x]}
• g1[x] := x^2
• g2[x] := x^3
• g[x] := {g1[x],g2[x]}

The explicit functions of a real variable can be the subject of various procedures that require at least four arguments: the variable name, the function header if explicitly declared, the beginning and the end of the analysis interval.

A function that is not explicitly declared can be implicitly declared within the procedure.

By default the interval is divided into the number of points entered in the field points. A fifth optional argument can set the interval scan step.

• Search for zeros. Use the operator Zeros with four arguments.

Examples: f[x]:=x^2-1; Zeros[x,f[x],-2,2]
Zeros[x,x^2-1,-2,2]; Zeros[x,Sin[2x],0,2P]

• Search for maxima. Use the operator Maxima with four arguments.

Examples: f[x]:=x^2-1; Maxima[x,f[x],-2,2]
Maxima[x,x^2-1,-2,2]; Maxima[x,Sin[2x],0,2P]

• Search for minima. Use the operator Minima with four arguments.

Examples: f[x]:=x^2-1; Minima[x,f[x],-2,2]
Minima[x,x^2-1,-2,2]; Minima[x,Sin[2x],0,2P]

• Production of a graph. Use the operator Graph with four or five arguments.

Examples: f[x]:=x^2-1; Graph[x,f[x],-2,2]
Graph[x,x^2-1,-2,2]; Graph[x,Sin[2x],0,2P,0.1]

• Execution of all previous procedures. Use the operator Analysis with four or five arguments.

Examples: f[x]:=x^2-1; Analysis[x,f[x],-2,2]
Analysis[x,x^2-1,-2,2]; Analysis[x,Sin[2x],0,2P,0.1]

• Simultaneous production of the graphs of two or more functions. Use the operator Graph with four or five arguments.

Examples: Graph[x,{Sin[x],Cos[x]},0,2P]

• Production of tables of one or more functions.

Example.

Table[x,Sin[x],0,2P,0.1]

You can simultaneously tabulate multiple functions by entering their names in a list enclosed by braces.

Example.

Table[x,{Sin[x],Cos[x]},0,2P]

Graphs and tables are produced in pop-up windows, so they are only viewable if your browser allows pop-ups.

Graphs of functions

Example.

Graph[x,Sin[x],-2P,2P] The rectangle containing the graph can be saved as an image in * .png format on a storage device of your system by clicking on it with the right mouse button. In the following examples we show only these images.

The buttons next to the rectangle containing the graph allow you to modify its appearance to improve its graphic rendering or to highlight some features.

For example, by clicking repeatedly on the button , the graph is enlarged. By repeatedly clicking the button , you increase the unit on the y axis. You can plot several functions together, inserting their names into a list delimited by braces.

Example.

Graph[x,{Sin[x],Cos[x]},-2P,2P] You can get the graph of a previously declared function.

Example.

qsin[x]:=Sin[x]^2; Graph[x,qsin[x],-2P,2P]

or, more simply

Graph[x,Sqr[Sin[x]],-2P,2P] Also in this case you can plot several functions together.

Graph[x,{x^2-1,1-x^2},-2,2] You can define a parametric function in the following way

f[x]:={x^2,x}

and obtain its graph

Graph[x,f[x],-2,2] Geometric drawings

Simple geometric shapes are coded as lists of at least two pairs of coordinates. Once this list has been defined, the drawing is made with the operator Draw.

Example: a segment

Draw[{-1,-1},{1,1}] Example: a polygonal line

Draw[{-2,0},{-1,1},{0,0},{1,1},{2,0}] You can represent regular polygons, circumferences, ellipses, arcs of curves defined by functions. To achieve these results, you must operate as follows:

• generate the description of the drawing, assigning the output of one of the following operators to a constant identifier:

• PoliV
• Circ
• Ellipse
• Translate
• Rotate
• get the drawing with the operator Draw with argument given by one or more identifiers.

Examples.

penta=PolyV[{0,0},1,5]; Draw[penta] c=Circ[{0,0},1]; qu=PolyV[{0,0},1,4]; Draw[c,qu] To represent arcs of curves described by functions, proceed as follows:

• Produce a list of points with the operator Coords applied to the function identifier, to the defined interval and, if necessary, to the increment step and assign the output of this operator to a constant;

para=Coords[x,Sqr[x],-1,1,0.1]

• The identifier of the arc of parabola can be one of the arguments of Draw.

Example

para=Coords[x,Sqr[x],-1,1,0.1]; c=Circ[{0,0},1]; Draw[para,c] The description of a drawing can be translated or rotated; eg:

tri=PolyV[{0,0},1,3]; trasl=Translate[tri,{2,1}]; rot=Rotate[tri,45°]; Draw[tri,trasl,rot] Histograms

You can represent two-dimensional histograms using the operator Histogram with argument given by list of pairs {number, number} or {string, number}. The list must be preceded by a string with the title.

Example.

f[k] := Binomial[10,k]; Histogram["binomial coefficients",Coords[k,f[k],0,10,1]]  